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liv4ever v1

This is the Livonian 4-lingual parallel corpus. Livonian is a Uralic / Finnic language with just about 20 fluent speakers and no native speakers (as of 2021). The texts and translations in this corpus were collected from all the digital text resources that could be found by the authors; scanned and printed materials are left for future work.

The corpus includes parallel data for Livonian-Latvian, Livonian-Estonian and Livonian-English; the data has been collected in 2021. After retrieval it was normalized in terms of different orthographies of Livonian and manually sentence-aligned where needed. It was collected from the following sources, with sentence counts per language pair:

A small part of the corpus is held out in order to be used as a translation benchmark (dev and test set, see below for download). Its material was manually translated in order to have each sentence translated in all four languages (Livonian-English-Latvian-Estonian). The material sources and resulting sentence counts:

5 languages, 4 bitexts
total number of files: 38
total number of tokens: 0.40M
total number of sentence fragments: 54.74k

Please cite the following article if you use any part of the corpus in your own work: Matīss Rikters, Marili Tomingas, Tuuli Tuisk, Valts Ernštreits, Mark Fishel: Machine Translation for Livonian: Catering to 20 Speakers. In Proceedings of ACL2022. and also acknowledge OPUS by citing J. Tiedemann, 2012, Parallel Data, Tools and Interfaces in OPUS. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2012)


Below you can download data files for all language pairs in different formats and with different kind of annotation (if available). You can click on the various links as explained below. In addition to the files shown on this webpage, OPUS also provides pre-compiled word alignments and phrase tables, bilingual dictionaries, frequency counts, and these files can be found through the resources search form on the top-level website of OPUS.

License: CC BY-SA

Other Download Packages

Release history:

Bottom-left triangle: download files
  • ces = sentence alignments in XCES format
  • leftmost column language IDs = tokenized corpus files in XML
  • TMX and plain text files (Moses): see "Statistics" below
  • lower row language IDs = parsed corpus files (if they exist)
Upper-right triangle: sample files
  • view = bilingual XML file samples
  • upper row language IDs = monolingual XML file samples
  • rightmost column language IDs = untokenized corpus files

en et fr liv lv
en viewen
et viewet
fr viewfr
liv ces ces ces viewliv
lv ces lv
en et fr liv lv

Statistics and TMX/Moses Downloads

Number of files, tokens, and sentences per language (including non-parallel ones if they exist)
Number of sentence alignment units per language pair

Upper-right triangle: download translation memory files (TMX)
Bottom-left triangle: download plain text files (MOSES/GIZA++)
Language ID's, first row: monolingual plain text files (tokenized)
Language ID's, first column: monolingual plain text files (untokenized)

language files tokens sentencesen et fr liv lv
en 4 13.2k 0.6k0.6k
et 8 94.7k 14.7k14.3k
fr 1 0.2k 3131
liv 19 0.2M 27.3k0.6k 14.6k 32 11.7k
lv 6 78.3k 12.0k12.0k

Note that TMX files only contain unique translation units and, therefore, the number of aligned units is smaller than for the distributions in Moses and XML format. Moses downloads include all non-empty alignment units including duplicates. Token counts for each language also include duplicate sentences and documents.


Notice and take down policy

Notice: Should you consider that our data contains material that is owned by you and should therefore not be reproduced here, please: Take down: We will comply to legitimate requests by removing the affected sources from the next release of the corpus.