# en/en-sw.xml.gz
# sw/en-sw.xml.gz


(src)="1"> In 1983 , two separate research groups led by Robert Gallo and Luc Montagnier declared that a novel retrovirus may have been infecting people with AIDS , and published their findings in the same issue of the journal Science .
(trg)="1"> Mnamo 1983 , vikundi viwili tofauti vya watafiti vilivyoongozwa na Robert Gallo na Luc Montagnier bila kutegemeana vilitangaza kuwa retrovirusi mpya ilikuwa ikiwaambukiza wagonjwa wa UKIMWI , hivyo wakachapisha matokeo yao katika jarida la Science .

(src)="2"> In the early days , the CDC did not have an official name for the disease , often referring to it by way of the diseases that were associated with it , for example , lymphadenopathy , the disease after which the discoverers of HIV originally named the virus .
(trg)="2"> Katika siku za kwanza , kituo hicho hakikuwa na jina rasmi la ugonjwa huu , mara nyingi wakitumia majina ya magonjwa mengine yaliyohusishwa nao , kwa mfano , limfadenopathi , jina ambalo baadaye wavumbuzi wa VVU waliviita virusi hivi .

(src)="3"> The chance of quitting is improved with social support , engagement in a smoking cessation program , and the use of medications such as nicotine replacement therapy , bupropion , or varenicline .
(trg)="3"> Uwezekano wa kukoma huendelezwa kwa usaidizi wa kijamii , kuhusika katika mpango wa kukomesha uvutaji na kutumia tiba kama vile tiba ya kubadili nikotini , bupropion au varenicline .

(src)="4"> Both strains of the tuberculosis bacteria share a common ancestor , which could have infected humans even before the Neolithic Revolution .
(trg)="4"> Wote Matatizo ya bakteria kifua kikuu kushiriki babu ya kawaida , ambayo ingeweza kuambukizwa binadamu kama mapema kama Mapinduzi Neolithic .

(src)="5"> Products with 60 % to 95 % alcohol by volume are effective antiseptics .
(trg)="5"> Michanganyiko huwa na asilimia 60-95 za alikoholi .

(src)="6"> Hermann Brehmer opened the first TB sanatorium in 1859 in Görbersdorf ( now Sokołowsko ) in Silesia .
(trg)="6"> Hermann Brehmer kufunguliwa kwanza TB sanatorium katika 1859 katika Sokołowsko , Poland .

(src)="7"> An alternative view holds that unsafe medical practices in Africa after World War II , such as unsterile reuse of single-use syringes during mass vaccination , antibiotic and anti-malaria treatment campaigns , were the initial vector that allowed the virus to adapt to humans and spread .
(trg)="7"> Maoni mengine yanadokeza kuwa hatua zisizo salama za uuguzi barani Afrika katika miaka ya baada ya Vita vya pili vya dunia , kama vile kutumia tena na tena sindano zisizosafishwa kuchanja umati , antibayotiki na kampeni dhidi ya malaria ndizo njia za kwanza zilizoruhusu virusi hivyo kujibadilisha vikiwa ndani ya wanadamu kisha kuenea .

(src)="8"> In this group of people , it decreases the risk of heart failure and death if used 15  hours per day and may improve people 's ability to exercise .
(trg)="8"> Katika kundi hili la watu , hupunguza hatari ya moyo kushindwa kufanya kazi na kifo iwapo ikitumia saa 15  kwa siku na inaweza kuongeza uwezo wa watu kufanya mazoezi .

(src)="9"> A recombinant immunoblot assay is used to verify the immunoassay and the viral load is determined by an HCV RNA polymerase chain reaction .
(trg)="9"> Uchanganuzi wa recombinant immunoblot inathibitisha immunoassay , na mmenyuko wa HCV RNA polimeresi huamua ukali .

(src)="10"> IGRAs may increase sensitivity when used in addition to the skin test , but may be less sensitive than the skin test when used alone .
(trg)="10"> IGRAs inaweza kuongeza usikivu wakati kutumika kwa kuongeza mtihani ngozi lakini inaweza kuwa chini zaidi kuliko mtihani nyeti ngozi wakati kutumika peke yake ..

(src)="11"> In 1854 , Florence Nightingale left for the Crimean War , where triage was used to separate seriously wounded soldiers from the non-life-threatening conditions .
(trg)="11"> Mwaka wa 1854 , Florence Nightingale alikwenda kwenye Vita vya Crimea .

(src)="12"> The Mantoux tuberculin skin test is often used to screen people at high risk for TB .
(trg)="12"> [ [ Mantoux mithani | Mantoux tuberculin ngozi mithani mara nyingi hutumika kwa watu screen katika hatari kubwa ya TB .

(src)="13"> Typically , these must occur over several decades before symptoms develop .
(trg)="13"> Kwa kawaida , uhatarisho huu lazima utokee miongo mingi kabla ya dalili kutokea .

(src)="14"> Typically , this is followed by a prolonged period with no symptoms .
(trg)="14"> Kwa kawaida , hali hii hufuatwa na kipindi kirefu kisicho na dalili .

(src)="15"> HAART and appropriate prevention of opportunistic infections reduces the death rate by 80 % , and raises the life expectancy for a newly diagnosed young adult to 20 – 50 years .
(trg)="15"> KKNKN na uzuiaji mwafaka wa Maambukizi nyemelezi hupunguza kima cha vifo kwa 80 % na kuongeza matarajio ya urefu wa maisha hadi miaka 20-50 kwa mtu mzima wa kimo aliyetambuliwa na maambukizi karibuni .

(src)="16"> People with COPD who are underweight can improve their breathing muscle strength by increasing their calorie intake .
(trg)="16"> Watu walio na ugonjwa sugu wa kufungana kwa njia za hewa walio na uzani wa chini wanaweza kuboresha nguvu za misuli ya kupumua kwa kuongeza kiwango cha kalori .

(src)="17"> Active TB is best treated with combinations of several antibiotics to reduce the risk of the bacteria developing antibiotic resistance .
(trg)="17"> kutibu ya sioonekana TB kawaida inaajiri antibiotic moja , wakati kazi ugonjwa wa Kifua Kikuu ni bora kutibiwa na mchanganyiko wa kiuvijasumu kadhaa ili kupunguza hatari ya bakteria kuendeleza upinzani antibiotiki .

(src)="18"> Stage III : Advanced symptoms , which may include unexplained chronic diarrhea for longer than a month , severe bacterial infections including tuberculosis of the lung , and a CD4 count of less than 350 / µl
(trg)="18"> Awamu ya III : Dalili kuu zinazoweza kujumuisha hali ya kuharishaya muda mrefu isiyo na kisababishi maalum kwa zaidi ya mwezi mmoja , maambukizi makali ya bakteria ikiwa ni pamoja na tiibii ya mapafu na pia kiwango cha seli za CD4 cha chini ya 350 / uL .

(src)="19"> However , they are affected by M. szulgai , M. marinum , and M. kansasii .
(trg)="19"> Hata hivyo wao walioathirika na M. szulgai , M. marinum na M.

(src)="20"> Although it was not effective , it was later successfully adapted as a screening test for the presence of pre-symptomatic tuberculosis .
(trg)="20"> Wakati ilikuwa si ufanisi , baadaye mafanikio ilichukuliwa kama mtihani uchunguzi kwa ajili ya uwepo wa kifua kikuu mbele ya dalili .

(src)="21"> Some feel the evidence of benefits is limited , while others view the evidence of benefit as established .
(trg)="21"> Wengine huhisi kuwa ushahidi wa manufaa ni mdogo ilhali wengine huona ushahidi wa manufaa kuwa uliopo .

(src)="22"> No benefit has been found in those with other health problems .
(trg)="22"> Hakuna manufaa yaliyopatikana kwa wale walio na matatizo mengine ya kiafya .

(src)="23"> While transmission rates of HIV during vaginal intercourse are low under regular circumstances , they are increased manyfold if one of the partners suffers from a sexually transmitted infection causing genital ulcers .
(trg)="23"> Ingawa viwango vya uambukizaji wakati wa ngono ya kupitia uke viko chini katika hali ya kawaida , kuna ongezeko kubwa iwapo mmoja wa wapenzi hao ana ugonjwa wa zinaa unaosababisha vidonda vya viungo vya uzazi .

(src)="24"> It is estimated that 3 % of all disability is related to COPD .
(trg)="24"> Inakadiriwa kuwa asilimia 3 ya ulemavu wote inahusiana na ugonjwa sugu wa kufungana kwa njia za hewa .

(src)="25"> This hematogenous transmission can also spread infection to more distant sites , such as peripheral lymph nodes , the kidneys , the brain , and the bones .
(trg)="25"> maambukizi haya ya hematogenous yanaweza pia kusambaza maambukizi kwa maeneo ya mbali zaidi , kama vile nodiya limfu ya pembeni , mafigo , ubongo na mifupa .

(src)="26"> The evidence to support this practice over people simply taking their medications independently is of poor quality .
(trg)="26"> ushahidi wa kuunga mkono kitendo hiki juu ya watu tu kutumia dawa zao kwa kujitegemea ni maskini .

(src)="27"> This additional expenditure also leaves less income to spend on education and other personal or family investment .
(trg)="27"> Matumizi hayo ya ziada pia hupelekea kiwango kidogo zaidi cha mapato ya kutumia katika elimu au uwekezaji wa kibinafsi au wa kifamilia .

(src)="28"> This risk is particularly high if someone deficient in alpha 1-antitrypsin also smokes .
(trg)="28"> Hatari hii iko juu zaidi hasa iwapo mtu aliye na upungufu wa kinza tripsini ya alfa ya 1 pia ni mvutaji .

(src)="29"> In 2010 , an estimated 68 % ( 22.9  million ) of all HIV cases and 66 % of all deaths ( 1.2  million ) occurred in this region .
(trg)="29"> Katika mwaka wa 2010 , kadirio la 68 % ( milioni 22.9  ) la visa vyote vya VVU na 66 % ya vifo ( milioni 1.2  ) vilitokea katika eneo hili .

(src)="30"> It is located in Kenya 's capital , Nairobi .
(trg)="30"> Ofisi za KEMRI ziko Mbagathi Road , Nairobi .

(src)="31"> A number of different antibiotics may be used including amoxicillin , doxycycline and azithromycin ; whether one is better than the others is unclear .
(trg)="31"> Antibiotiki tofauti zinaweza kutumiwa zikiwemo : amoxicillin , doxycycline au azithromycin si bayana iwapo moja ni bora kuliko zingine .

(src)="32"> Certain medications , such as corticosteroids and infliximab ( an anti-αTNF monoclonal antibody ) , are other important risk factors , especially in the developed world .
(trg)="32"> Baadhi ya dawa , kama vile corticosteroids na infliximab ( an anti-αTNF monoclonal antibody ) kuwa inazidi muhimu hatari , hasa katika nchi zilizoendelea .

(src)="33"> Among these , the Aeras Global TB Vaccine Foundation received a gift of more than $ 280  million ( US ) from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to develop and license an improved vaccine against tuberculosis for use in high burden countries .
(trg)="33"> Kati ya hayo , Aeras TB Duniani Chanjo Foundation alipokea zawadi ya zaidi ya $ 280,000,000 ( Marekani ) kutoka kwa Bill na Melinda Gates Foundation kuendeleza na leseni ya chanjo dhidi ya kifua kikuu bora kwa ajili ya matumizi katika nchi mzigo mkubwa .

(src)="34"> There is some evidence that vitamin A supplementation in children with an HIV infection reduces mortality and improves growth .
(trg)="34"> Kuna ushahidi mdogo kuwa nyongeza ya vitamini A kwa watoto hupunguza vifo na kuboresha ukuaji .

(src)="35"> In those with a severe exacerbation , antibiotics improve outcomes .
(trg)="35"> Kwa wale walio na maumivu zaidi makali , antibiotiki huboresha matokeo .

(src)="36"> The disease also has large economic impacts .
(trg)="36"> Ugonjwa huu pia unasababisha madhara ya kiuchumi ambayo ni makubwa , hasa kwa nchi maskini .

(src)="37"> At the household level , AIDS causes both loss of income and increased spending on healthcare .
(trg)="37"> Katika kiwango cha familia , UKIMWI husababisha upungufu wa mapato na pia ongezeko la matumizi katika huduma za afya .

(src)="38"> Unsafe medical injections play a role in HIV spread in sub-Saharan Africa .
(trg)="38"> Sindano za tiba zisizo salama huchangia pakubwa katika kueneza UKIMWI katika eneo la Kusini kwa Sahara .

(src)="39"> Slightly over half the infected population are women and 2.1 million are children .
(trg)="39"> Zaidi ya nusu ni wanawake na milioni 2.6 ni watoto chini ya miaka 15 .

(src)="40"> The World Health Organization estimates the risk of transmission as a result of a medical injection in Africa at 1.2 % .
(trg)="40"> Shirika la Afya Duniani linakadiria hatari ya kuambukizwa kupitia sindano hizo barani Afrika kuwa 1.2 % .

(src)="41"> For surveillance purposes , the AIDS diagnosis still stands even if , after treatment , the CD4 + T cell count rises to above 200 per µL of blood or other AIDS-defining illnesses are cured .
(trg)="41"> Kwa sababu za kiuchunguzi , utambuzi wa UKIMWI hubakia iwapo baada ya matibabu kiwango cha seli za CD4 + T kitapanda zaidi ya 200 kwa kila µL ya damu au iwapo maradhi mengine yanayoashiria UKIMWI yataponywa .

(src)="42"> There is a risk from mucosal exposures to blood , but this risk is low , and there is no risk if blood exposure occurs on intact skin .
(trg)="42"> Kuna hatari kutoka kwa mfichuo wa kamasi hadi kwa damu ; ingawa kiwango cha hatari hii ni ndogo , na hakuna hatari yoyote kama damu ikigusa ngozi isiyokuwa na jeraha .

(src)="43"> Effective dust control can be achieved by improving ventilation , using water sprays and by using mining techniques that minimize dust generation .
(trg)="43"> Uzuiaji bora wa vumbi unaweza kutimizwa kwa kuboresha upitaji wa hewa , kutumia vinyunyizio vya maji na kutumia mbinu za uchimbaji migodi zinazothibiti utengenezaji wa vumbi .

(src)="44"> When used with inhaled steroids they increase the risk of pneumonia .
(trg)="44"> Zikitumiwa pamoja na steroidi za kupumuliwa ndani , huongeza hatari ya nimonia .

(src)="45"> AIDSinfo – Information on HIV / AIDS treatment , prevention , and research , U.S. Department of Health and Human Services .
(trg)="45"> AIDSinfo – HIV / AIDS Treatment Information , U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

(src)="46"> The photo was displayed in Life , was the winner of the World Press Photo , and acquired worldwide notoriety after being used in a United Colors of Benetton advertising campaign in 1992 .
(trg)="46"> Picha hiyo iliyochapishwa na gazeti hilo ilishinda tuzo la World Press Photo , kisha kupata umaarufu ulimwenguni kote baada ya kutumiwa na United Colors of Benetton katika kampeni ya utangazaji ya mwaka 1992 .

(src)="47"> Long-term antibiotics , specifically those from the macrolide class such as erythromycin , reduce the frequency of exacerbations in those who have two or more a year .
(trg)="47"> Antibiotiki za muda mrefu , hasa za kundi la macrolide kama vileazithromycin , hupunguza kiwango cha kutokea kwa maumivu Zaidi kwa wale wanaokuwa nayo mara mbili au Zaidi kwa mwaka .

(src)="48"> These were followed with pictures by Matthew Baillie in 1789 and descriptions of the destructive nature of the condition .
(trg)="48"> Michoro hii ilifuatwa na picha za Matthew Baillie katika mwaka wa 1789 na maelezo ya hali ya uharibifu wa ugonjwa huo .

(src)="49"> The recommended treatment of new-onset pulmonary tuberculosis , as of 2010 , is six months of a combination of antibiotics containing rifampicin , isoniazid , pyrazinamide , and ethambutol for the first two months , and only rifampicin and isoniazid for the last four months .
(trg)="49"> Matibabu ya kifua kikuu ilipendekeza mpya-mwanzo ya mapafu , kama wa 2010 , ni miezi sita ya macho ya antibiotiki zenye rifampicin , isoniazidi , pyrazinamide na ethambutol kwa miezi miwili ya kwanza , na tu rifampicin na isoniazidi pyrazinamide , na ethambutol .

(src)="50"> The risk is greater in those who are poor , although whether this is due to poverty itself or other risk factors associated with poverty , such as air pollution and malnutrition , is not clear .
(trg)="50"> Hatari huwa kubwa zaidi katika watu masikini , ingawa si bayana iwapo hii ni kutokana na umasikini wenyewe au athari zingine hatari zinazohusiana na umasikini , kama vile uchafuzi wa hewa na utapia mlo.i Kuna ushahidi mdogo kuwa watu wenye ugonjwa wa pumu na matatizo ya njia za pumzi wako katika hatari ya juu zaidi ya kuathiriwa na ugonjwa sugu wa mapafu yaliyofungana .

(src)="51"> Modern treatments were developed during the second half of the 20th century .
(trg)="51"> Matibabu ya kisasa yalianzishwa katika nusu ya pili ya karne ya 21 .

(src)="52"> The initial cases were a cluster of injecting drug users and homosexual men with no known cause of impaired immunity who showed symptoms of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia ( PCP ) , a rare opportunistic infection that was known to occur in people with very compromised immune systems .
(trg)="52"> Matukio ya kwanza yalikuwa katika kikundi kidogo cha waraibu wa dawa za kudungia na wanaume shoga wasiokuwa na visababishi bayana vya udhaifu wa kingamwili na walioonyesha dalili za numonia ya Pneumocystis carinii , maambukizi nyemelezi yanayotokea kwa nadra na maarufu katika watu wenye kingamwili dhaifu sana .

(src)="53"> This commonly includes a combination of a short-acting inhaled beta agonist and anticholinergic .
(trg)="53"> Hii mara nyingi hujumuisha mchanganyiko agonisti ya beta ya muda mfupi iliyopumuliwa ndani na kinza kikolini .

(src)="54"> Two main approaches are used to attempt to improve the efficacy of available vaccines .
(trg)="54"> Mbili mbinu kuu ni kuwa kutumika kujaribu kuboresha ufanisi wa chanjo zinapatikana .

(src)="55"> Roughly one-quarter of the world 's population has been infected with M. tuberculosis , with new infections occurring in about 1 % of the population each year .
(trg)="55"> Takribani theluthi moja ya idadi ya watu duniani imekuwa kuambukizwa na M. kifua kikuu , na maambukizi mapya ya kutokea kwa kiwango cha moja kwa pili kwa kiwango cha kimataifa .

(src)="56"> Best of the Web .
(trg)="56"> Kinga ni bora kuliko tiba .

(src)="57"> The destruction of the connective tissue of the lungs leads to emphysema , which then contributes to the poor airflow , and finally , poor absorption and release of respiratory gases .
(trg)="57"> Kuharibiwa kwa tishu unganishi za mapafu ndio unaopelekea emfisema , ambayo kisha huchangia upitaji duni wa hewa , na hatimaye , ufyonzaji na uachiliaji duni wa gesi za kupumua .

(src)="58"> This contributes to the inability to breathe out fully .
(trg)="58"> Hii huchangia kushindwa kupumua nje kikamilifu .

(src)="59"> A tuberculosis classification system developed by the American Thoracic Society is used primarily in public health programs .
(trg)="59"> [ [ mfumo wa kifua kikuu ] uainishaji maendeleo na Jamii ya Marekani Thoracic hutumiwa hasa katika mipango ya afya ya umma .

(src)="60"> In the United States approximately 6.3 % of the adult population , totaling approximately 15  million people , have been diagnosed with COPD .
(trg)="60"> Marekani , takriban asilimia 6.3 ya watu wazima , ambayo ni takriban watu milioni 15 wamepatikana kuwa na ugonjwa sugu wa kufungana kwa njia za hewa .

(src)="61"> HCV RNA can be detected by PCR typically one to two weeks after infection , while antibodies can take substantially longer to form and thus be detected .
(trg)="61"> Polymerase chain reaction ( PCR ) inagundua HCV RNA wiki mmoja au mbili baada ya kuambukizwa , wakati vikinga mwili huchukua muda mrefu kutengenezwa na kuonekana .

(src)="62"> AIDS stigma exists around the world in a variety of ways , including ostracism , rejection , discrimination and avoidance of HIV-infected people ; compulsory HIV testing without prior consent or protection of confidentiality ; violence against HIV-infected individuals or people who are perceived to be infected with HIV ; and the quarantine of HIV-infected individuals .
(trg)="62"> Unyanyapaa dhidi ya watu walio na UKIMWI zipo kote ulimwenguni kwa namna mbalimbali , zikiwemo kutengwa , kukataliwa na jamii , ubaguzi na kuepuka watu walioambukizwa VVU , kulazimishwa kupimwa VVU bila idhini au ulinzi wa usiri , vurugu dhidi ya watu walioambukizwa au waliodhaniwa kuambukizwa VVU ; na karantini ya watu waliombukizwa VVU .

(src)="63"> Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ( AIDS ) is defined as an HIV infection with either a CD4 + T cell count below 200 cells per µL or the occurrence of specific diseases associated with HIV infection .
(trg)="63"> Ukosefu wa Kinga Mwilini ( UKIMWI ) hufasiliwa kwa msingi wa kiwango cha seli za CD4 + cha chini ya seli 200 kwa kila µL au kutokea kwa magonjwa maalumu yanayohusiana na maambukizi ya VVU .

(src)="64"> Both the American and European guidelines recommend partly basing treatment recommendations on the FEV1 .
(trg)="64"> Miongozo yote ya Amerika na Europa ilipendekeza kwa kiasi kwa msingi wa mapendekezo ya kupumulia kulicho lazimishwa .

(src)="65"> Albert Calmette and Camille Guérin achieved the first genuine success in immunization against tuberculosis in 1906 , using attenuated bovine-strain tuberculosis .
(trg)="65"> Albert Calmette na Camille Guérin mafanikio ya kwanza ya kweli mafanikio katika utoaji wa chanjo dhidi ya kifua kikuu katika 1906. kwa kutumia mnachuja ya ngombe kufikika kifua kikuu .

(src)="66"> Annual influenza vaccinations in those with COPD reduce exacerbations , hospitalizations and death .
(trg)="66"> Chanjo za influenza za mwaka kwa walio na ugonjwa sugu wa kufungana kwa njia za hewa hupunguza maumivu zaidi , kulazwa hospitalini na kifo .

(src)="67"> Anthrax is an infection caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis .
(trg)="67"> Inasababishwa na bakteria bacthus anthracis .

(src)="68"> It is estimated that nearly half of prison inmates share unsterilized tattooing equipment .
(trg)="68"> Karibu nusu ya wafungwa wanatumia kwa pamoja vifaa vya kujichora ambavyo sio visafi .

(src)="69"> A chest X-ray and complete blood count may be useful to exclude other conditions at the time of diagnosis .
(trg)="69"> Eksirei ya kifua na kipimo kamili cha damu vinaweza kuwa muhimu katika kutenga magonjwa mengine wakati wa utambuzi .

(src)="70"> Globally , as of 2010 , COPD is estimated to result in economic costs of $ 2.1  trillion , half of which occurring in the developing world .
(trg)="70"> Ulimwenguni kote , Kufikia mwaka wa 2010 , ugonjwa sugu wa kufungana kwa njia za pumzi umekadiriwa kusababisha gharama ya kiuchumi ya dola trilioni 2.1 ambayo nusu yake hutokea katika nchi zinazostawi .

(src)="71"> By 1978 , the prevalence of HIV-1 among homosexual male residents of New York City and San Francisco was estimated at 5 % , suggesting that several thousand individuals in the country had been infected .
(trg)="71"> Kufikia mwaka 1978 , maambukizi ya VVU-1 katika mashoga wenyeji wa New York na San Francisco yalikadiriwa kuwa 5 % , kuonyesha kuwa maelfu ya watu nchini Marekani tayari walikuwa wameambukizwa .

(src)="72"> " In 1815 one in four deaths in England was due to " " consumption " " . "
(trg)="72"> " Katika 1815 , moja katika vifo nne nchini Uingereza ni kutokana na " " matumizi " " . "

(src)="73"> Universal precautions within the health care environment are believed to be effective in decreasing the risk of HIV .
(trg)="73"> Hadhari za jumla katika mandhari ya utunzaji wa afya zinaaminika kufaulu kupunguza hatari ya VVU .

(src)="74"> Programs such as the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program are working to reduce TB levels among people receiving public health care .
(trg)="74"> Mipango kama vile Programu ya Taifa ya Kifua Kikuu karatasi ya kufikiria tena ni kusaidia kupunguza viwango vya TB miongoni mwa watu wanaopata huduma ya afya ya umma .

(src)="75"> Of this total an estimated $ 1.9  trillion are direct costs such as medical care , while $ 0.2  trillion are indirect costs such as missed work .
(trg)="75"> Kwa idadi hii , takriban dola trilioni 1.9 ni gharama za moja kwa moja kama vile matibabu , ilhali dola trilioni 0.2 ni gharama zisizo za moja kwa moja kama vile kazi ambayo haikufanywa .

(src)="76"> Respiratory infections such as pneumonia do not appear to increase the risk of COPD , at least in adults .
(trg)="76"> Maambukizi ya njia za pumzi kama vile nimonia hayaonekani kuongeza hatari ya ugonjwa sugu wa mapafu yaliyofungana , angalau katika watu wazima .

(src)="77"> HIV-1 is the virus that was originally discovered ( and initially referred to also as LAV or HTLV-III ) .
(trg)="77"> VVU-1 ni virusi vilivyotambulika kwanza ( na ambavyo mwanzoni vilijulikana pia kama LAV au HTLV-III ) .

(src)="78"> The economic costs of hepatitis C are significant both to the individual and to society .
(trg)="78"> Gharama za kiuchumi za homa ya nyongo C ni muhimu kwa mtu binafsi na kwa jamii kijumla .

(src)="79"> A person with active but untreated tuberculosis may infect 10 – 15 ( or more ) other people per year .
(trg)="79"> Mtu aliye na kifua kikuu hai , lakini hajatibiwa anaweza kuambukiza 10-15 ( au zaidi ) watu wengine kwa mwaka .

(src)="80"> Adverse effects with these treatments were common , with half of people getting flu-like symptoms and a third experiencing emotional problems .
(trg)="80"> Madhara kwa matibabu ni ya kawaida , nusu ya watu wanaotibiwa hupata dalili kama homa ya mafua , na theluthi ya watu hupata matatizo ya mhemuko .

(src)="81"> Symbolic AIDS stigma — the use of HIV / AIDS to express attitudes toward the social groups or lifestyles perceived to be associated with the disease .
(trg)="81"> Unyanyapaa wa kiishara wa UKIMWI -kutumia VVU / UKIMWI kuonyesha mitazamo fulani dhidi ya vikundi vya jamii au mitindo ya maisha inayohusishwa na ugonjwa huu .

(src)="82"> Positive results obtained by antibody or PCR testing are confirmed either by a different antibody or by PCR .
(trg)="82"> Matokeo chanya yanayopatikana kwa kupima MAP au zindiko huthibitishwa kwa zindiko au MAP tofauti .

(src)="83"> Several new long-acting agents are under development .
(trg)="83"> Ajenti kadhaa za muda mrefu zinaendelea kutengenezwa .

(src)="84"> The oldest unambiguously detected M. tuberculosis gives evidence of the disease in the remains of bison in Wyoming dated to around 17,000 years ago .
(trg)="84"> Mwanzo zisizo na utata kutambua ya M. kifua kikuu inahusisha ushahidi wa ugonjwa huo katika mabaki ya bison tarehe na takriban 17,000 miaka iliyopita .

(src)="85"> 25  million people may have COPD if currently undiagnosed cases are included .
(trg)="85"> Watu milioni 25  wanaweza kuwa na ugonjwa sugu wa kufungana kwa njia za hewa visa visivyotambuliwa vikiongezwa .

(src)="86"> In Europe , COPD represents 3 % of healthcare spending .
(trg)="86"> Kule Ulaya , Ugonjwa sugu wa kufungana kwa njia za hewa unawakilisha asilimia 3 ya gharama za afya .

(src)="87"> It was called bacille Calmette – Guérin ( BCG ) .
(trg)="87"> Ilikuwa inaitwa ( bacillus of Calmette and Guérin ) ( BCG ) .

(src)="88"> Personal-care items such as razors , toothbrushes , and manicuring or pedicuring equipment can be contaminated with blood .
(trg)="88"> Vifaa vya maangalizi binafsi kama vile mashine ya kunyolea , mswaki , na mashine ya kukata kucha yanaweza kuwa na damu .

(src)="89"> In those with HIV , the risk of developing active TB increases to nearly 10 % a year .
(trg)="89"> Katika wale wanaoishi na H.I.V , hatari ya kupatwa na TB hai inaongezeka hadi 10 % karibu mwaka .

(src)="90"> Courtesy AIDS stigma — stigmatization of people connected to the issue of HIV / AIDS or HIV-positive people .
(trg)="90"> Unyanyapaa wa kihisani wa UKIMWI- Unyanyapaa dhidi ya watu wanaohusishwa na suala la VVU / UKIMWI au watu walio na VVU .

(src)="91"> This practice may be cost effective in some areas of the world .
(trg)="91"> Hii inaweza kuwa ya bei nafuu katika maeneo fulani ulimwenguni .

(src)="92"> Globally , as of 2010 , COPD affected approximately 329  million people ( 4.8 % of the population ) .
(trg)="92"> Kote ulimwenguni kufikia mwaka wa 2010 , ugonjwa sugu wa kufungana kwa njia za hewa uliathiri takriban watu milioni 329 ( asilimi 4.8 ya ya watu wote ) na hutokea sana kwa wanaume kuliko wanawake .

(src)="93"> Some religious organizations have claimed that prayer can cure HIV / AIDS .
(trg)="93"> Mashirika mengine ya dini yamedai kuwa maombi yanatosha kutibu VVU / UKIMWI .

(src)="94"> People believed this was caused by the original person with TB draining the life from the other family members .
(trg)="94"> Watu waliamini hii kulitokana na mtu awali na TB kuondoa maji maisha kutoka kwa wanachama wengine wa familia .

(src)="95"> Most people infected with HIV develop specific antibodies ( i.e. seroconvert ) within three to twelve weeks after the initial infection .
(trg)="95"> Watu wengi walioambukizwa VVU huzalisha zindiko maalum ( yaani kuzalisha zindiko mpya ) katika wiki 3 hadi 12 tangu maambukizi ya kwanza .

(src)="96"> However , the difficult culture process for this slow-growing organism can take two to six weeks for blood or sputum culture .
(trg)="96"> Hata hivyo , ni vigumu kwa utamaduni mchakato huu viumbe polepole-kukua wanaweza kuchukua 2-6 wiki kwa ajili ya damu au utamaduni makohozi .

(src)="97"> HIV is the cause of the spectrum of disease known as HIV / AIDS .
(trg)="97"> VVU ndivyo kisababishi cha mkusanyiko wa magonjwa yanayojulikana kijumla kama VVU / UKIMWI .

(src)="98"> The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence criteria additionally require a FEV1 less than 80 % of predicted .
(trg)="98"> Vigezo vya Taasisi ya Kitaifa ya Ubora wa Matibabu pia huhitaji kiasi cha hewa inayopumuliwa nje kwa lazima1 cha chini ya asilimia 80 ya kilichobashiriwa .

(src)="99"> Directly observed therapy , i.e. , having a health care provider watch the person take their medications , is recommended by the World Health Organization ( WHO ) in an effort to reduce the number of people not appropriately taking antibiotics .
(trg)="99"> Moja kwa moja aliona tiba , yaani kuwa na huduma ya afya mtoa kuangalia mtu kuchukua dawa zao , ni ilipendekeza na WHO katika jitihada za kupunguza idadi ya watu si ipasavyo kuchukua antibiotiki .

(src)="100"> Some people may benefit from long-term oxygen therapy or lung transplantation .
(trg)="100"> Baadhi ya watu wanaweza kunufaika na matibabu ya oksijeni ya muda mrefu au kupandikiza mapafu .